Federal Math Advisory Panel Final Report - The Executive Summary (.pdf)
(20 pgs) includes research that backs the importance of "automatic recall" and memorization of basic computation facts, number sense and vocabulary.
USA Today, NY Times Articles Summarizing Math Final Report (.pdf)
(2 pgs) includes the basics from the excutive summary.
NCTM "Math in your Head" Article (.pdf) (1 pg) includes concept of developing ALL Math Tools in a student's Math Tool Kit, including Mental Math. By Cathy Seely, President of NCTM at the time of article.
KS State Math Standards - Reference to Number Sense, Mental Math & Estimation (.pdf) (4 pgs) includes the "teacher notes" that are found in all levels of the State Standards that discuss the importance of the above concepts for test-taking skills and to understand and apply of math.
CSM & High-Yield, Research-Based Instructional Strategies Summary (.pdf) (1 pg) includes summary chart from web page on this website. (Marzano, Literacy First, MTSS, Kagan, DuFor's PLC's, Ruby Payne, Differentiated Instruction, Multiple Intelligences, and more)
Instructional Strategies and CSM
(short-cut to web page)